Emacs .dir-locals.el – Add project path to $PYTHONPATH (Python Development in Emacs)

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In order to ensure that the processes executed by Emacs and its packages, such as Flycheck or Flymake, can access the Python modules of a project, it is essential to correctly configure the $PYTHONPATH environment variable.

This article provides a solution by introducing a .dir-locals.el file that adds the directory path of .dir-locals.el to the $PYTHONPATH environment variable.

The .dir-locals.el file should be placed in the root directory of a Python project.

File name: .dir-locals.el

;; -*- mode: emacs-lisp; -*-
;; File: .dir-locals.el
;; Description:
;; This file adds the path where `.dir-locals.el` is located to the
;; `$PYTHONPATH` environment variable to ensure that processes executed by
;; Emacs and its packages, such as Flycheck or Flymake, can access the Python
;; modules of a project.
;;
;; Author: James Cherti
;; License: MIT
;; URL: https://www.jamescherti.com/emacs-dir-locals-add-path-to-pythonpath/

((python-mode . ((eval . (progn
                           (let ((project_path
                                  (car (dir-locals-find-file
                                        (buffer-file-name))))
                                 (python_path_env (getenv "PYTHONPATH")))
                             (setq-local process-environment
                                         (cons
                                          (concat "PYTHONPATH="
                                                  project_path
                                                  (if python_path_env
                                                      (concat ":" python_path_env)
                                                    ""))
                                          process-environment))))))))
Code language: Lisp (lisp)

A Git Tool that can decide whether to use ‘git mv’ or ‘mv’ to move files and/or directories

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The git-smartmv command-line tool, written by James Cherti, allows moving files and/or directories without having to worry about manually choosing whether to use mv or git mv.

  • If the file or directory is being moved within the same Git repository, git-smartmv uses git mv.
  • If the file or directory is being moved between a Git repository and a non-Git directory or a different Git repository, git-smartmv uses mv.

Installation

sudo pip install git-smartmvCode language: plaintext (plaintext)

Shell alias

To simplify the usage of this tool, you can add the following line to your ~/.bashrc:

alias mv="git-smartmv"Code language: plaintext (plaintext)

Usage

The git-smartmv command-line tool accepts similar arguments as the mv command, including the source file or directory to be moved, and the destination file or directory.

Example:

git smartmv file1 file2 directory/

Second example (rename):

git smartmv file1 file2

Links related to git-smartmv

Helper script to upgrade Arch Linux easily and efficiently

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In this article, we will be sharing a Python script, written by James Cherti, that can be used to upgrade Arch Linux. It is designed to make the process of upgrading the Arch Linux system as easy and efficient as possible.

The helper script to upgrade Arch Linux can:

  • Delete the ‘/var/lib/pacman/db.lck’ when pacman is not running,
  • upgrade archlinux-keyring,
  • upgrade specific packages,
  • download packages,
  • upgrade all packages,
  • remove from the cache the pacman packages that are no longer installed.

The script provides a variety of options and is perfect for those who want to automate the process of upgrading their Arch Linux system (e.g. execute it from cron) and ensure that their system is always up to date.

Requirements: psutil
Python script name: archlinux-update.py

#!/usr/bin/env python
# Author: James Cherti
# License: MIT
# URL: https://www.jamescherti.com/script-update-arch-linux/
"""Helper script to upgrade Arch Linux."""

import argparse
import logging
import os
import re
import subprocess
import sys
import time

import psutil


class ArchUpgrade:
    """Upgrade Arch Linux."""

    def __init__(self, no_refresh: bool):
        self._download_package_db = no_refresh
        self._keyring_and_pacman_upgraded = False
        self._delete_pacman_db_lck()

    @staticmethod
    def _delete_pacman_db_lck():
        """Delete '/var/lib/pacman/db.lck' when pacman is not running."""
        pacman_running = False
        for pid in psutil.pids():
            try:
                process = psutil.Process(pid)
                if process.name() == "pacman":
                    pacman_running = True
                    break
            except psutil.Error:
                pass

        if pacman_running:
            print("Error: pacman is already running.", file=sys.stderr)
            sys.exit(1)

        lockfile = "/var/lib/pacman/db.lck"
        if os.path.isfile(lockfile):
            os.unlink(lockfile)

    def upgrade_specific_packages(self, package_list: list) -> list:
        """Upgrade the packages that are in 'package_list'."""
        outdated_packages = self._outdated_packages(package_list)
        if outdated_packages:
            cmd = ["pacman", "--noconfirm", "-S"] + outdated_packages
            self.run(cmd)

        return outdated_packages

    def _outdated_packages(self, package_list: list) -> list:
        """Return the 'package_list' packages that are outdated."""
        outdated_packages = []
        try:
            output = subprocess.check_output(["pacman", "-Qu"])
        except subprocess.CalledProcessError:
            output = b""

        for line in output.splitlines():
            line = line.strip()
            pkg_match = re.match(r"^([^\s]*)\s", line.decode())
            if not pkg_match:
                continue

            pkg_name = pkg_match.group(1)
            if pkg_name in package_list:
                outdated_packages += [pkg_name]

        return outdated_packages

    @staticmethod
    def upgrade_all_packages():
        """Upgrade all packages."""
        ArchUpgrade.run(["pacman", "--noconfirm", "-Su"])

    def download_all_packages(self):
        """Download all packages."""
        self.download_package_db()
        self.run(["pacman", "--noconfirm", "-Suw"])

    def download_package_db(self):
        """Download the package database."""
        if self._download_package_db:
            return

        print("[INFO] Download the package database...")
        ArchUpgrade.run(["pacman", "--noconfirm", "-Sy"])
        self._download_package_db = True

    def upgrade_keyring_and_pacman(self):
        self.download_package_db()

        if not self._keyring_and_pacman_upgraded:
            self.upgrade_specific_packages(["archlinux-keyring"])
            self._keyring_and_pacman_upgraded = True

    def clean_package_cache(self):
        """Remove packages that are no longer installed from the cache."""
        self.run(["pacman", "--noconfirm", "-Scc"])

    @staticmethod
    def run(cmd, *args, print_command=True, **kwargs):
        """Execute the command 'cmd'."""
        if print_command:
            print()
            print("[RUN] " + subprocess.list2cmdline(cmd))

        subprocess.check_call(
            cmd,
            *args,
            **kwargs,
        )

    def wait_download_package_db(self):
        """Wait until the package database is downloaded."""
        successful = False
        minutes = 60
        hours = 60 * 60
        seconds_between_tests = 15 * minutes
        for _ in range(int((10 * hours) / seconds_between_tests)):
            try:
                self.download_package_db()
            except subprocess.CalledProcessError:
                minutes = int(seconds_between_tests / 60)
                print(
                    f"[INFO] Waiting {minutes} minutes before downloading "
                    "the package database...",
                    file=sys.stderr,
                )
                time.sleep(seconds_between_tests)
                continue
            else:
                successful = True
                break

        if not successful:
            print("Error: failed to download the package database...",
                  file=sys.stderr)
            sys.exit(1)


def parse_args():
    """Parse the command-line arguments."""
    usage = "%(prog)s [--option] [args]"
    parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(description=__doc__.splitlines()[0],
                                     usage=usage)
    parser.add_argument("packages",
                        metavar="N",
                        nargs="*",
                        help="Upgrade specific packages.")

    parser.add_argument(
        "-u",
        "--upgrade-packages",
        default=False,
        action="store_true",
        required=False,
        help="Upgrade all packages.",
    )

    parser.add_argument(
        "-d",
        "--download-packages",
        default=False,
        action="store_true",
        required=False,
        help="Download the packages that need to be upgraded.",
    )

    parser.add_argument(
        "-c",
        "--clean",
        default=False,
        action="store_true",
        required=False,
        help=("Remove packages that are no longer installed from "
              "the cache."),
    )

    parser.add_argument(
        "-n",
        "--no-refresh",
        default=False,
        action="store_true",
        required=False,
        help=("Do not download the package database (pacman -Sy)."),
    )

    parser.add_argument(
        "-w",
        "--wait-refresh",
        default=False,
        action="store_true",
        required=False,
        help=("Wait for a successful download of the package database "
              "(pacman -Sy)."),
    )

    return parser.parse_args()


def command_line_interface():
    """The command-line interface."""
    logging.basicConfig(level=logging.INFO, stream=sys.stdout,
                        format="%(asctime)s %(name)s: %(message)s")

    if os.getuid() != 0:
        print("Error: you cannot perform this operation unless you are root.",
              file=sys.stderr)
        sys.exit(1)

    nothing_to_do = True
    args = parse_args()
    upgrade = ArchUpgrade(no_refresh=args.no_refresh)

    if args.wait_refresh:
        upgrade.wait_download_package_db()
        nothing_to_do = False

    if args.packages:
        print("[INFO] Upgrade the packages:", ", ".join(args.packages))
        upgrade.upgrade_keyring_and_pacman()
        if not upgrade.upgrade_specific_packages(args.packages):
            print()
            print("[INFO] The following packages are already up-to-date:",
                  ", ".join(args.packages))
        nothing_to_do = False

    if args.download_packages:
        print("[INFO] Download all packages...")
        upgrade.download_all_packages()
        nothing_to_do = False

    if args.upgrade_packages:
        print("[INFO] Upgrade all packages...")
        upgrade.upgrade_keyring_and_pacman()
        upgrade.upgrade_all_packages()

        nothing_to_do = False

    if args.clean:
        print("[INFO] Remove packages that are no longer installed "
              "from the cache...")
        upgrade.clean_package_cache()
        nothing_to_do = False

    if nothing_to_do:
        print("Nothing to do.")
        print()

    sys.exit(0)


def main():
    try:
        command_line_interface()
    except subprocess.CalledProcessError as err:
        print(f"[ERROR] Error {err.returncode} returned by the command: "
              f"{subprocess.list2cmdline(err.cmd)}",
              file=sys.stderr)
        sys.exit(1)


if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()Code language: Python (python)

Python: Extract variables/values from source code comments

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The source code in this article can be used to extract variables and values from source code comments. The code is written in Python and uses a combination of regular expressions and Python’s built-in string functions to extract specific information from source code comments.

#!/usr/bin/env python
# Author: James Cherti
# License: MIT
# URL: https://www.jamescherti.com/python-extract-variables-values-from-source-code-comments/
"""Extract variables/values from source code comments."""

import re
from typing import Dict


def get_variables_from_comments(
        source_code_content: str,
        comment_pattern: str = r'[^\w\s]+') -> Dict[str, list]:
    """Extract variables/values from source code comments.

    Source code example:
        #!/usr/bin/env python
        # This is a simple comment.
        print("Hello world")
        #
        # myvar: value 1
        # myvar: value 2
        # myvar: value 3
        # AnotherVar: value 1

    Here is how to extract the variables and their values from the
    source code above:
    >>> get_variables_from_comments(source_code_content)
    {'AnotherVar': ['value 1'], 'myvar': ['value 1', 'value 2', 'value 3']}

    """
    source_code_lines = source_code_content.splitlines()

    result: Dict[str, list] = {}
    for line in source_code_lines:
        re_str = (r'^\s*' +
                  comment_pattern +
                  r'\s*([\w\d]+)\s*:\s*(.*)\s*$')
        match_result = re.search(re_str, line)
        if match_result:
            var_name = match_result.group(1)
            var_value = match_result.group(2)

            if var_name not in result:
                result[var_name] = []

            result[var_name].append(var_value)

    return result


def main():
    """Try the method 'get_variables_from_comments()'."""

    source_code = (
        "#!/usr/bin/env python\n"
        "# This is a simple comment.\n"
        "print(\"Hello world\")\n"
        "#\n"
        "# myvar: value 1\n"
        "# myvar: value 2\n"
        "#\n"
        "# myvar: value 3\n"
        "# AnotherVar: value 1\n"
    )

    __import__('pprint').pprint(get_variables_from_comments(
        source_code_content=source_code,
        comment_pattern=re.escape('#'))
     )


if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()Code language: Python (python)

Python: Tab completion against a list of strings (readline)

5/5
#!/usr/bin/env python
# License: MIT
# Author: James Cherti
# URL: https://www.jamescherti.com/python-tab-completion-readline-against-list/
"""Tab completion against a list of strings (readline)"""

import readline
from typing import Any, List, Union


class ReadlineCompleter:
    """A readline completer."""

    def __init__(self, options: List[str]):
        """Store the options = ['word1', 'word2']."""
        readline.set_completer_delims('')
        self.options = options
        self.matches: List[str] = []

    def complete(self, _, state):
        """Complete a readline sentence."""
        if state == 0:
            origline = readline.get_line_buffer()
            begin = readline.get_begidx()
            end = readline.get_endidx()
            being_completed = origline[begin:end]
            words = origline.split()

            if not words:
                self.matches = self.options[:]
            else:
                try:
                    if begin == 0:
                        matches = self.options[:]  # First word
                    else:
                        first = words[0]  # Later word
                        matches = self.options[first]

                    if being_completed:
                        # Match options with portion of input
                        # being completed
                        self.matches = [w for w in matches
                                        if w.startswith(being_completed)]
                    else:
                        # Matching empty string so use all candidates
                        self.matches = matches
                except (KeyError, IndexError):
                    self.matches = []

        try:
            return self.matches[state]
        except IndexError:
            return None


def input_completion(prompt: Any,
                     list_options: Union[None, List[str]] = None):
    """Read a string from standard input and complete against 'list_options'.

    The trailing newline is stripped. The prompt string is printed to
    standard output without a trailing newline before reading input.

    If the user hits EOF (*nix: Ctrl-D, Windows: Ctrl-Z+Return), raise
    EOFError. On *nix systems, readline is used if available.

    """
    readline.parse_and_bind('tab: complete')
    if list_options is None:
        list_options = []

    save_completer = readline.get_completer()
    try:
        readline.set_completer(
            ReadlineCompleter(list_options).complete
        )
        return input(prompt)
    finally:
        readline.set_completer(save_completer)


def main():
    """Try input_completion()."""
    list_options = ["yes", "no", "cancel"]
    value = input_completion("Proceed (press the Tab key)? ",
                             list_options=list_options)
    print("Value:", value)


if __name__ == "__main__":
    main()Code language: Python (python)

A tool to Execute a Command in a new Tmux Window

5/5

The Python script tmux-run.py allows executing a command in a new tmux window. A tmux window is similar to a tab in other software.

If the script is executed from within a tmux session, it creates a tmux window in the same tmux session. However, if the script is executed from outside of a tmux session, it creates a new tmux window in the first available tmux session.

(Requirement: libtmux)

The Python script: tmux-run.py

#!/usr/bin/env python
# License: MIT
# Author: James Cherti
# URL: https://www.jamescherti.com/python-script-run-command-new-tmux-window/
"""Execute a command in a new tmux window.

This script allows executing a command in a new tmux window (a tmux window is
similar to a tab in other software).

- If it is executed from within a tmux session, it creates a tmux window
in the same tmux session.
- However, if the script is executed from outside of a tmux
session, it creates a new tmux window in the first available tmux session.

"""

import os
import shlex
import shutil
import sys

import libtmux


SCRIPT_NAME = os.path.basename(sys.argv[0])


def parse_args():
    if len(sys.argv) < 2:
        print(f"Usage: {SCRIPT_NAME} <command> [args...]",
              file=sys.stderr)
        sys.exit(1)

    args = sys.argv[1:]
    args[0] = shutil.which(args[0])
    if args[0] is None:
        print(f"{SCRIPT_NAME}: no {args[0]} in "
              f"({os.environ.get('PATH', '')})", file=sys.stderr)
        sys.exit(1)

    return args


def get_tmux_session():
    tmux_server = libtmux.Server()
    if not tmux_server.sessions:
        print(f"{SCRIPT_NAME}: the tmux session was not found",
              file=sys.stderr)
        sys.exit(1)

    tmux_session_id = os.environ["TMUX"].split(",")[-1]
    if tmux_session_id:
        try:
            return tmux_server.sessions.get(id=f"${tmux_session_id}")
        except Exception:  # pylint: disable=broad-except
            pass

    return tmux_server.sessions[0]


def run_in_tmux_window():
    try:
        command_args = parse_args()
        tmux_session = get_tmux_session()
        command_str = shlex.join(command_args)
        tmux_session.new_window(attach=True, window_shell=command_str)
    except libtmux.exc.LibTmuxException as err:
        print(f"Error: {err}.", file=sys.stderr)
        sys.exit(1)


if __name__ == '__main__':
    run_in_tmux_window()


Code language: Python (python)

How to make Vim edit/diff files from outside of Vim? (e.g. from a shell like Bash, Zsh, Fish..)

5/5

The Vim editor offers the ability to connect to a Vim server and make it perform various tasks from outside of Vim. The command-line tools vim-client-edit, vim-client-diff and the vim_client Python module, written by James Cherti, can be used to easily find and connect to a Vim server and make it perform the following tasks:

  • Edit files or directories in new tabs (The command-line tool vim-client-edit),
  • Diff/Compare up to eight files (The command-line tool vim-client-diff),
  • Evaluate expressions and return their result (The Python module vim_client),
  • Send commands and expressions to Vim (The Python module vim_client).

The command-line tools vim-client-edit and vim-client-diff are especially useful when a quick edit or comparison needs to be performed on a file from outside of Vim (e.g. from a shell like Bash, Zsh, Fish, etc.).

Additionally, the vim_client Python module allows running expressions on a Vim server and retrieving their output, which can be useful for automating tasks or scripting. For example, you can use vim-client to run a search and replace operation on a file or directory, or to perform a complex diff operation between two files.

Overall, vim-client is a powerful tool for interacting with Vim from the vim-client-edit and vim-client-diff command-line tools. The vim_client Python module can also be used to run and retrieve the output of Vim expressions, which can help automate various tasks.

Please star vim-client on GitHub to support the project!

Requirements

To use vim-client, you will need to have Vim and Python installed on your system.

Installation

The vim-client package can be installed with pip:

$ sudo pip install vim-clientCode language: Bash (bash)

Execute Vim server

The Vim editor must be started with the option “–servername”, which enables the Vim server feature that allows clients to connect and send commands to Vim:

$ vim --servername SERVERNAMECode language: plaintext (plaintext)

Make Vim server edit multiple files in tabs

Editing a list of files in new tabs:

$ vim-client-edit file1 file2 file3 

Make Vim server diff files (like vimdiff)

Comparing/diff up to eight files:

$ vim-client-diff file1 file2

Useful ~/.bashrc aliases:

Adding the following aliases to ~/.bashrc is recommended as it makes it easy to execute the command-line tools vim-client-edit and vim-client-diff:

alias gvim=vim-client-edit
alias vim=vim-client-edit
alias vi=vim-client-edit
alias vimdiff=vim-client-diff

Links related to vim-client

Vim: Open documentation in a new tab for the word under the cursor (Vim help, Python, man pages, Markdown, Ansible…)

5/5

The following Vim script (VimL) function can be used to make Vim open the documentation of the word under the cursor in a new tab for various languages and tools such as Vim help (:help), Python (Pydoc), Markdown (sdcv dictionary), man pages (Vim’s built-in ‘:Man’), and Ansible (ansible-doc).

The VimL function is also extensible, meaning that you can adapt it to work with any other documentation tool. By default, the key mapping upper-case “K” can be used to open the documentation for the word under the cursor in a new tab.

" Language: Vim script
" Author: James Cherti
" License: MIT
" Description: Vim: open help/documentation in a new tab 
"              (Vim script, Python, Markdown, man pages, Ansible...).
"              Press upper-case K to open help for the word under the cursor.
" URL: https://www.jamescherti.com/vim-open-help-documentation-in-a-new-tab/

function! TabHelp(word) abort
  let l:cmd = ''

  let l:tabhelpprg = get(b:, 'tabhelpprg', '')
  if l:tabhelpprg ==# ''
    normal! K
    return
  endif

  if l:tabhelpprg[0] ==# ':'
    if stridx(l:tabhelpprg, '%s') ==# -1
      execute l:tabhelpprg
    else
      execute printf(l:tabhelpprg, fnameescape(a:word))
    endif
    return
  else
    let l:cmd = 'silent read! '
    if stridx(l:tabhelpprg, '%s') ==# -1
      let l:cmd .= l:tabhelpprg
    else
      let l:cmd .= printf(l:tabhelpprg, shellescape(a:word))
    endif
  endif

  execute 'silent tabnew help:' . fnameescape(a:word)

  setlocal modifiable
  silent normal! ggdG
  silent normal! 1Gdd
  if l:cmd !=# ''
    execute l:cmd
  endif
  silent normal! gg0
  setlocal nomodifiable
  setlocal noswapfile
  setlocal nowrap
  setlocal nonumber
  setlocal nomodified
  setlocal buftype=nofile
  setlocal bufhidden=delete
  if exists('&relativenumber')
    setlocal norelativenumber
  endif
  if exists('&signcolumn')
    setlocal signcolumn=no
  endif
  setlocal nofoldenable
  setlocal foldcolumn=0
endfunction

augroup TabHelp
  autocmd!
  autocmd FileType vim let b:tabhelpprg = ':tab help %s'
  autocmd FileType sh,zsh,csh if ! exists(':Man') | runtime ftplugin/man.vim | endif | let b:tabhelpprg = ':tab Man %s'
  autocmd FileType yaml.ansible if executable('ansible-doc') | let b:tabhelpprg = 'ansible-doc %s' | endif
  autocmd FileType markdown if executable('sdcv') | let b:tabhelpprg = 'sdcv %s' | endif
  autocmd FileType vim,sh,zsh,csh,yaml.ansible,markdown nnoremap <silent> <buffer> K :call TabHelp(expand('<cword>'))<CR>
augroup ENDCode language: Vim Script (vim)

Python: Read the shebang line of a script

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#!/usr/bin/env python
# Author: James Cherti
# License: MIT
# URL: https://www.jamescherti.com/python-read-the-shebang-line-of-a-script/
"""Read the shebang line of a script."""

import sys
import os
import shlex
from pathlib import Path
from typing import Union


class ShebangError(Exception):
    """Error with the method read_shebang()."""


def read_shebang(script_path: Union[Path, str]) -> list:
    """Return the shebang line of a file.

    >>> shebang("file.sh")
    ['/usr/bin/env', 'bash']

    """
    with open(script_path, "rb") as fhandler:
        line = fhandler.readline().strip().decode()

    if len(line) > 2 and line[0:2] == '#!':
        shebang_split = shlex.split(line[2:].strip())
        if not Path(shebang_split[0]).is_file():
            raise ShebangError(f"the shebang '{shebang_split}' does not exist")

        if not os.access(shebang_split[0], os.X_OK):
            raise ShebangError(f"the shebang '{shebang_split}' is not "
                               "executable")

        return shebang_split

    raise ShebangError("the shebang line was not found")

    
if __name__ == "__main__":
    try:
        print(read_shebang(sys.argv[1]))
    except IndexError:
        print(f"Usage: {sys.argv[0]} <file>", file=sys.stderr)
        sys.exit(1)Code language: Python (python)

Python: Calculate the size of a directory and its sub-directories

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#!/usr/bin/env python
# Author: James Cherti
# License: MIT
# URL: https://www.jamescherti.com/python-calculate-the-size-of-a-directory-and-its-sub-directories/
"""Calculate the size of a directory and its sub-directories."""

import os
from pathlib import Path
from typing import Union

def get_size(path: Union[Path, str], include_dirs_size=True) -> int:
    """Return the size of a file or a directory in bytes."""
    path = Path(path)
    size = 0

    if path.is_dir():
        list_paths = path.glob("**/*")
    elif path.is_file():
        list_paths = [path]  # type: ignore
    else:
        list_paths = []  # type: ignore

    for cur_path in list_paths:
        if not include_dirs_size and cur_path.is_dir():
            continue

        if not cur_path.is_symlink():
            size += cur_path.stat().st_size

    return sizeCode language: Python (python)